Anesthesia is the general name for all types of numbness and its literal meaning is numbness. A series of medical practices applied by anesthesiologists and reanimation specialists to ensure that the patient does not feel pain during surgery. The type of anesthesia to be applied is determined by the anesthesiologists and reanimation specialists, and it is given to the patient at the prescribed rates with devices called anesthesia delivery system to temporarily turn off consciousness. Eliminating consciousness, reflex and sensation while vital activities continue during the operation with anesthesia techniques that have been applied and developed continuously for about 150 years, are very important for both the patient and the physicians performing the operation. Thanks to this application, which provides comfort to the patient during the operation, the reflexes are suppressed and the muscle relaxation is provided, making the surgical intervention easier. It is also the specialty of the anesthesiologist to ensure the continuity of this situation throughout the operation period and to wake the patient with the termination of anesthesia drugs after the operation.
Types of anesthesia
When necessary, the types of anesthesia applied to facilitate the intervention and reduce or eliminate pain can be grouped under several headings. Depending on the type and length of the intervention to be performed by other physicians and surgeons, the anesthesiologist; chooses from general, regional, local anesthesia and sedation applications. Applies the anesthesia procedures deemed necessary to the patient. Sedation, which is among the types of anesthesia and is a part of general anesthesia, is generally applied to relieve the patient and to create a light sleep state.
The patient, who is welcomed by the anesthesiologist in the operating room, is first connected by the anesthesiologist to the necessary devices such as a heart monitor, pulse oximeter that measures the oxygen in the blood. With these devices, the vital functions of the patient are constantly monitored throughout the operation. Then, special medicines are given to cause muscle relaxation and sleep through the vascular access. Then, inhalation anesthetics, in other words different anesthetic gases, are given with oxygen from the respiratory tract by the anesthesiologist. Thus, the consciousness of the patient is closed in a controlled manner. After the continuity of respiration is ensured, surgical intervention begins and these gases are given as long as the operation continues. Throughout the operation, the anesthesiologist is always with the patient. Anesthetist; It constantly monitors all vital functions such as pulse, oxygen concentration in tissues, blood pressure, body temperature and respiration and does not leave the operating room. Modern anesthesia devices and anesthesiologists constantly observe the depth of sleep, so that situations such as waking up and awakening are not encountered during surgery. The duration of general anesthesia is completely variable depending on the type and duration of the surgery. When the surgery is completed, all inhalation anesthetics are turned off by the anesthesiologist and the tubes in the respiratory tract are removed. The patient is taken to the recovery room to slowly wake up and recover and his general condition is checked. Painkillers are applied when necessary to reduce existing pain. When the patient is fully conscious, the patient is switched to controlled analgesic administration. Here, if the patient's pain increases while resting, he presses a button in his hand to transfer some painkillers in addition to the serum that goes to the vascular access. Thanks to the pre-programmed device, overdose of painkillers is prevented and the comfort of the patient is increased.
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